A controlled landfill is where the final disposal of waste takes place. A landfill therefore is the final destination of waste categories that cannot be recovered any other way.
Depending on the type of waste they host, landfills are classified into three different categories:
- Landfills for inert waste
- Landfills for non-hazardous waste
- Landfills for hazardous waste
Specific environmental safeguards and technical-construction requirements are defined for each category of landfill, due to the fact that the type and extent of the environmental impact associated with a landfill depends on the type of waste it hosts.
A controlled landfill guarantees the containment and control of impacts generated by waste disposal, typically the production of biogas e leachate.
Control of a landfill does not end with the period in which it is accepting waste, but continues after its closure, since even after the last delivery of waste is unloaded, the production of biogas and leachate continues for years. In accordance with legislation, the post-operational management of a landfill lasts at least 30 years from the last delivery.