Incineration (plant layout)
A modern incinerator can be considered to all intents and purposes as a medium-small thermoelectric power station.
The incoming waste is stored in a pit where it is homogenized before being loaded into the combustor.
The most commonly used and widespread combustor technology is that with a mobile grate, horizontal or inclined, on which the waste advances, is mixed and, in contact with air, undergoes combustion, with the production of burnt gases and slags.
Other types of industrially used combustor are those with a rotating drum and fluidized bed. The former is used exclusively for industrial waste (solid and liquid) with high calorific value, while the latter is used exclusively for pre-treated waste such as RDF(Refuse Derived Fuel).
Gases produced by the combustor pass through the heat exchange section (boiler) where they release heat and cool down. The heat is used to produce steam, which in turn is used in a turbine for the production of electricity or electricity combined with heat.
Before being expelled into the atmosphere, the burnt gases undergo a series of treatments to reduce pollutants (filtration of dust, neutralization of acid gases, reduction of nitrogen oxides, absorption of micropollutants), using reagents, and production of solid and/or liquid residues. These residues are special waste that can be recovered and/or disposed of.